How Fiber Optics Works for Better Telecommunication

Telecom Tech Outlook | Friday, January 11, 2019

Fiber optic communication systems are becoming increasingly common in telecommunication services as they have enabled communication to be made over greater distances with lower levels of loss in the transmission medium. Fiber optic communication systems are employed in broadband distribution and general data networking.

A fiber optic data transmission system will comprise three major elements, i) transmitter ii) fiber optic cable iii) receiver and an optical repeater. The elements of the system may vary according to its application, but the basic principles are the same. As opposed to copper wire, signals are sent by light over fibers made of glass in optical fiber communication systems. This light forms an electromagnetic carrier wave modulated to carry information. Network fiber cables have some advantages over copper cables.

1.  Greater Bandwidth: Copper cables have limited bandwidth as they are originally designed for voice transmission. Fiber optics cable provides more bandwidth for carrying more data than copper cables with the same diameter.

2.  Faster Speeds: The core of fiber optic cable allows to carry signals at a speed thirty-one percent slower than the speed of light but faster than copper cables. There is also less signal deterioration with fiber cables.

3. Better Reliability: Optical fiber cable is immune to temperature changes, unlike copper cables. Also, fiber does not carry electric current so is not troubled by electromagnetic interference interrupting data transmission.

4.  Longer Distance: Fiber optic cables can carry signals farther than copper cables, and the distance depends on the type of the cable, wavelength and the network.

5. Thinner and Solidly Built: When compared to copper cables, fiber optic cables are lighter in weight and thinner.  It can withstand more pull pressure and less prone to damage and breakage.

6. Lower Cost of Ownership: Although the optical fiber cable holds higher initial cost than copper wires, the durability and reliability reduce the total cost of ownership of it.

Because of these advantages when comparing with copper cables, the use of fiber optic cables continues to grow at a rapid pace. It is sure that fiber optic communication systems will continue to be the ascendant technology in the future.

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