What is a Fiber Optic Communication System?

Telecom Tech Outlook | Saturday, November 13, 2021

 Fiber-optic communication delivers data from one location to another by sending infrared light pulses across an optical fiber.

Fremont, CA: Fiber optic connection is the best option for gigabit and even beyond gigabit data transport. This type of communication helps send voice, video, telemetry, and data over long distances through local area networks or computer networks. Lightwave technology is helpful to transport data via fiber by converting electrical information into light in a fiber optic communication system. Large bandwidth, smaller diameter, lightweight, long-distance signal transmission, low attenuation, transmission security, and other unique characteristics of this type of communication technology make it a critical component of any communications infrastructure.

Understanding the concept of Fiber Optic Communication

Fiber-optic communication delivers data from one location to another by sending infrared light pulses across an optical fiber. The light is in the form of a carrier signal, which is modified to store the data in this case. When great distance, high bandwidth, and electromagnetic interference resistance are required, fiber optic cables replace electrical wires.

Fiber-optic communication is mainly utilized in LANs to transmit audio, video, and telemetry. In addition, numerous telecommunication firms use optical fiber to transport telephone, cable TV, and Internet communication signals. Bell Labs researchers researched fiber-optic communication and set a new BW distance of 100 petabit kilometers per second.

Key Elements of a Fiber Optic Communication System

     •   Compact Light Source

The light source requirements differ depending on the application, such as local area networks and long-haul communication systems. Power, speed, spectral linewidth, noise, durability, cost, temperature, and other factors are the sources' requirements. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes are both employed as light sources.

Because of their low bandwidth and power limitations, light-emitting diodes get employed for short-range and low data rate applications. Surface and Edge Emitting Systems are two examples of LED architectures. Surface-emitting diodes are simple to build and dependable, while edge-emitting diodes get more commonly utilized due to their wider line width and modulation frequency restriction. In addition, edge-emitting diodes feature a high power output and a shorter linewidth.

Many advances and innovations have made these sources more dependable in recent years. Below are a few examples of such comparisons between these two sources. In addition, direct and external modulation methods are helpful to modify each of these sources.

     •  Low Loss Optical Fiber

Optical fiber is a type of cable that is also known as a low-loss cylindrical dielectric waveguide. Optical fiber also considers factors such as the working environment, tensile strength, durability, and stiffness. As a result, fiber optic cable is flexible and composed of high-quality extruded glass or plastic. The fiber optic cable's diameter ranges from 0.25 to 0.5mm (slightly thicker than human hair).